HISTORICAL TIMELINE IN INVESTIGATION

The following timeline has been prepared to help you place people and events in perspective. I have obtained the data from a variety of sources and cannot vouch for its accuracy. If you find an error, please e-mail me. The first student with a valid correction will receive extra points on his/her grade. Extra points may also be obtained for significant additions.

 PEOPLE, ORGANIZATIONS AND EVENTS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF INVESTIGATION 

DATE

PEOPLE

ORGANIZATIONS & PROCEDURES

SUPPORT & EQUIPMENT

EXTERNAL MILIEU

1100's

 

Office of Coroner in England

 

 

1200's

 

 

 

Roger Bacon

1215

 

 

 

Magna Charta
4th Lateran Council

1253

 

Parish Constables appointed to patrol at night. They were paid by the inhabitants in the area. They lasted until 1829 in London.

 

 

 1400's

 

 

muskets, printing, watches

 

early 1500's

Andreas Vesalius

established anatomy

 

Religious wars, Luther, Knox,

late 1500's

 Ambrose Pare'

Fidelis & Zacchia

conducted official autopsies
description of wounds

 microscope
Bamberg Code 1507
Constitutis Criminalis Carolina 1530

Shakespeare, Copernicous,

Non-contiguous empires begin

1600's

 

 

 

Colonization
newspapers
Francis Bacon, Galileo
Scientific Method

1700's

 

 

 

John Locke, Pascal, Boyle, Newton, Franklin, Beccaria, Utilitarians

1700-
1800

 

 

 

England's population doubled

1720's

Jonathan Wild. Executed 1725. 

becomes England's most famous & effective Thief-Catcher

 

 

1748

Henry Fielding

appointed magistrate in London on Bow Street and set up plainclothes investigative unit called Bow Street Runners for his court.

Printed wanted notices (THE COVENT GARDEN JOURNAL). Paid by reward money when criminals were apprehended.

 

1753

Sir John Fielding

assumes older brother's court and the Bow Street Runners.

Developed paid informants, employed criminal raids, bore firearms & handcuffs.

 

late 1700's

1974

 Benjamin Rush

John Toms

 

lectures "On the Study of Medical Jurisprudence"
 mail by coach

Industrial Revolution,
Watt, political parties

1789

 

Creation of Office of US Attorney General. Most federal investigations contracted out to private detectives until 1865.

 

Declaration of Independence 1776, US Constitution 1789

1789

Andrew Duncan

lectures in legal medicine at U of Edinburgh

 

 

1807

Andrew Duncan Jr

1st chair of legal medicine at U of Edinburg

 

 

1809

 

1813

Eugene Vidocq becomes France's most famous thief-catcher

Mathiew Orfila is the father of Modern Toxicology

 

 steamboat 1803
gas light in London 1807
steam locomotive 1814

 

1817

 

Vidocq forms first Paris police detective bureau, forerunner of la Surete

 

 

1818

 

 

England abolishes the Parliamentary Reward System

 

1820-1860

 

 

 Railroads

Religious reform and social movements, women's rights, popular education

1827

Vidocq

forms private investigative agency

for recovery of stolen property, pursuing criminals and solvency checks.

 

1829

Sir Robert Peel

proposes Metropolitan Police Act in House of Commons to provide a uniformed police force of 1000 for London. Housed in Scotland Yard with officers nicknamed bobbies.

 

 

1830's

 

 

 Colt revolver, photography, telegraph

 

1833

 

Philadelphia created first paid, daylight police force in US but only lasted three years

 

 

1835

 

Formation of the Texas Rangers

 

 

1836

Alfred Swain Taylor

 

The Principles and Practice of Medical Jurisprudence

 

1836

 

Congress authorized the Post Office Department to hire agents .

to investigate postal matters

 

1840

M.J.B Orfela


Francis Vincet Raspail

Testified in LaFaye case in France (died of arsenic poison)
hired by defense to refute Orfela

 

 

1840-1920

 

 

 

increase in population density of 29% in U.S.

1842

 

Detective branch at Scotland Yard supersedes Bow Street Runners.

 

 

1844

 

New York creates first unified police force in US. Implemented by NYC in 1845.

 

 

1846

Francis Tukey appointed Marshall of Boston by Mayor Josiah Quincy, Jr.

 

 

 

1846

 

First private detective agency in St. Louis

 

 

1849

Allen Pinkerton was appointed as Chicago's first detective by Mayor Levi D. Boone.

 

First separation of investigative function from patrol.

Gold in California

1850's

 

 

 

Spencer, Darwin, John Stuart Mill, Karl Marx

1850

 

Creation of the Pinkerton Detective Agency.

Private service to railroad properties and other business enterprises. Developed techniques of surveillance and undercover operatives. Established strict code of ethical behavior.

 

1851

Marshal Francis Tukey.

appointed Detectives in Boston First in New England.

Weekly line-up established in Boston Suspected offenders were inspected by the entire police department.

 

1856

Pinkerton hires first female detective, Kate Warne

 

 

 

1857

 

New York created 20 detective positions

New York City police created a photographic rogues' gallery.

 

1858

William James Herschel (grandson of Sir William Herschel)

required natives in Hooghly district in India to affix fingerprints to contracts, 1st official use of fingerprints in modern times

 

 

1860

 

Chicago established its first detective unit as a result of the increased demand for the performance of investigative functions.

 

 

1860's

 

 

 repeating rifle, dynamite,
trans-Atlantic cable

Civil War,

1860-1880's

 

 

 

growth of population and corruption in cities, industrial monopolies, sweat box labor

1865

 

The U.S. Secret Service was organized to combat counterfeiting. Thru the years the Secret Service loaned investigators to other federal agencies.
Massachusetts formed a state investigative agency.

 

 

1870's

 

 

 Transcontinental railroads, electric lighting, phonograph, microphone, telephone

Labor unions, Reconstruction,

1870

 

US Department of Justice created

 

 

1871

 

The U.S. Attorney General received $50,000 for the detection and prosecution of crimes.

 

 

1873

 

Formation of the North West Mounted Police

 

 

1877

 

Criminal Investigation Department formed in Scotland Yard.

 

 

1878

 

Boston instituted the investigation of deaths by a medical examiner.

This effort represented the first application of pathological investigations of violent crimes.

 

1879

Alphonse Bertillon (1853-1914)

 

began to develop a method for measuring the body for identification. Eleven measurement system of Anthropometry adopted in 1882 & formally recognized in 1888.

 

1880's

 

 

 internal combustion engine

Labor riots,
labor racketeering

1880

Dr. Henry Faulds
William James Herschel

 

authors articles in Nature suggesting use of fingerprints and technics and a case study

 

1882

Gilbert Thompson

used his fingerprint on commissary orders in the US Geological Survey

 

 

1883

Mark Twain

 

used fingerprint to solve murder in book "Life on the Mississippi"

 

1884

 

Chicago created first municipal Criminal Identification Bureau

 

 

1886

Inspector Thomas Byrnes, Chief of Detectives of New York City

 instituted "Mulberry Street Morning Parade" of arrested criminals before the detectives.

authors PROFESSIONAL CRIMINALS OF AMERICA describing the modus operandi of criminals.

 

1887

Arthur Conan Doyle

 

introduces Sherlock Holmes in STUDY IN SCARLET.

 

1888

Bertillon promoted to chief of the Department of Judicial Identity.

 

Developed full-face and profile photographs as mugshots and the "portrait parle'" written description of suspects, plaster of paris casting of tracks and UV photography of documents.

 

1890

 

 

 

Sherman Antitrust Act

1891

Juan Vucetich

 Argentinian police installed fingerprint files as official means of criminal identification

used fingerprint as sole evidence to gain conviction in South America.

 

1892

Francis Galton

 

published a book entitled FINGERPRINTS. He developed the foundations of a fingerprint classification system that replaced the Bertillon system.
Also developed statistical techniques and attempted to determine criminal types anthropologically

 

1893

Hans Gross

 

wrote a treatise on CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION. This work became a landmark text emphasizing the importance of reconstructing the crime scene for investigative purposes.

 

1895

Inspector Thomas Byrnes fired by president of the Board of Police Commissioners, Theodore Roosevelt, in 1895 for selective enforcement and became insurance investigator.

 

 

 

1897

 

The National Bureau of Criminal Identification was established by the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and was located in Chicago.

 

 

1898

Juan Vucetich

 

introduced first complete system of fingerprint classification DACTILOSCOPIA COMPARADA

 

1900

Robert Heindl

 

introduced fingerprint classification in Germany.

 

1901

Dr. Karl Landsteiner

 

discovered blood grouping (on whole blood).

 

1901

Paul Uhlenhuth

 

discovers precipitin test to distinguish human blood from animal blood.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1901

Edward Richard Henry

 Inspector General of Police in Bengal

publishes book CLASSIFICATION AND USES OF FINGERPRINTS based on Galton's principles and Vucetich's systems.

 

1902

Bertillon

 

used fingerprint as sole evidence to solve murder case.

 

1902

Dr. Henry P. DeForest

NY Civil Service Commission uses fingerprints to identify applicants on tests

 

 

1903

Edward Richard Henry

 becomes commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police

 

 

1903

Will & William West case

 in US Penitentiary at Leavenworth, publicizes weakness of Anthropometry

manned powered flight

 

1903

Rudolph Reiss

 

published JUDICIAL PHOTOGRAPHY. He also developed method of preserving footprints, and worked on forged fingerprints.

 

1904

 

US Penitentiary at Leavenworth and St Louis, Mo Police Dept establish fingerprint bureaus

 

 

1904

Det. Sgt Joseph Farot

 New York City Police

1st foreigner trained in England on Henry system, breaks "James Jones" case in 1906

 

1905

 U.S. Attorney General Charles Bonaparte (under T. Roosevelt)

established the Bureau of Investigation in the US Department of Justice when Congress forbids federal agencies to borrow investigators from Secret Service.

 

Pure Food & Drug Acts
Einstein - Theory of Relativity

1905

 

California Bureau of Criminal Identification
Creation of Pennsylvania State Police for strike breaking

 

 

1905

 

 US Army adopts fingerprints

 

 

1907

August Vollmer, Chief of Police Berkley

instituted formal procedures for handling evidence after failure to indict in poison case

 

 

1910

Edmond Locard

established first police laboratory in Lyon, France

 Model T 1908

 

1910

Albert S. Osborn

 

wrote a text entitled QUESTIONED DOCUMENTS. This pioneering work led to the acceptance of the scientific examination of documents in courts
Radiography.

 

1915

Dr. Leone Lattes

 

developed a procedure for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain.

 

1915

Dr. Charles Norris


Dr. Alexander Gettler

1st ME in NYC
ME system in NYC, civil service appt
1st forensic tox in ME office

 

 

1917-1920

 

 

 poison gas

WW I,

1920's

 

Prohibition enforced by IRS in Dept of Treasury (up to 4000 "T-men")

 Tommy gun

rise in prosperity & KKK & Organized Crime,

1923

Colonel Calvin Goddard

 

utilized the comparison microscope for firearms examinations.

 

1923

August Vollmer.

established the first forensic laboratory in the Los Angeles Police Department

 

 

1924

J. Edgar Hoover became the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

records from Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary and the National Bureau of Criminal Identification became a division of the Bureau of Investigation.

Instituted non-political appointment of investigators.

 

1926

Goddard

 founds Bureau of Forensic Ballistics in New York.

talking motion pictures 1927

 

1928

 

 

Model A Ford, penicillin

 

1930's

 

 

 development of airlines & air power

Great Depression,

1930

 

The Federal Bureau of Narcotics was established in the Treasury Department.

First UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS BULLETIN published.

 

1931

 

 

 

Wickersham Commission (under H. Hoover) decried "third degree" used by police.

1932

 

The Bureau of Investigation established a forensic laboratory.

 

The Saint Valentine's Day Massacre.

1934

Calvin Goddard became the director of the Laboratory at Northwestern

New York City Police Department establishes crime laboratory.
Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory at Northwestern University

.

 

1935

Harry Soderman and NYCPD Inspector John O'Connell

 

wrote MODERN CRIMINAL INVESTIGATION.

 

1935

 

The Bureau of Investigation establishes the National Police Academy and becomes the FBI.

 Radar

 

1937

Dr. Paul L. Kirk

Criminalistics program at U. Cal, Berkley

 

 

1937

 

forensic pathology at Harvard Med School

 

 

1939

 

1st statewide ME system in Maryland

 

 

1941-1945

 

 

 jet aircraft, nuclear reactors, aqualung, computer

WW II, Atomic bomb,

1942

 

The Office of Security was established in the US State Department

to conduct background investigations of applicants and protect against subversive activities and espionage.

 

1945

 

 

 

Cold War begins

1950

Ralph Turner

 

established criminalistics program at Michigan State University. (James E. Halligan, Jr. was first graduate)
transistor 1948

Korean War

1952

 

The Inspection Service of the IRS was created to maintain internal security against bribery and embezzlement.
The State of California creates the Commission on Peace Officers Standards and Training.

 

H bomb

1953

Dr. Paul L. Kirk
(1902-1970)

 

published CRIME INVESTIGATION: PHYSICAL EVIDENCE AND THE POLICE LABORATORY.

DNA structure

1955

 

Florida establishes the Florida Sheriff's Bureau with a crime laboratory and central records unit.

 hovercraft,
Sputnik 1957

 

1960's

 

FSU started teaching an investigation course - Halligan taught it for 33 years

instrumental analysis becomes important in crime laboratories
LEAA, LEEP funding
Laser

Viet Nam War
JFK, MLK assignated

1963

 

The Illinois State Legislature passed a bill establishing the Illinois Crime Investigating Commission

to fight organized crime

 

1965

 

 

The FBI started to develop the National Crime Information Center (NCIC) to collect data on wanted persons, stolen vehicles and stolen property.

 

1967

 

Florida establishes the Bureau of Law Enforcement after Gov. Kirk hires Wackenhut agents for state investigations.

 

 

1968

 

Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs created in Dept of Justice (Became DEA in 1973)

 

 

1970's

 

 

use of enzyme typing in dried blood developed in Scotland Yard (began in 1974 in US)
747 jumbo jet, Apollo 11, communication satellites

US retreats from Viet Nam, Nixon resigns,
3 Mile Island,
Iran hostages

1980's

 

 

AFIS developed
DNA typing developed

proliferation of computer, space shuttle
Fall of Communism

1987

 

 

First use of DNA typing in England

 

1995

 

 

online firearms database