Instructions for Citations and References

 

Last Updated: 02/12/2005
 

The journal uses the American Psychological Association system of internal notation does not use either footnotes at the bottom of the page or endnotes. Instead, the author's last name is inserted after the sentence in which their material has been used. At the end of the sentence place a bracket and inside it place the author's last name, year the book or article was published, and the page(s) cited: e.g. (Author, year. page).

1A: Basic rule for using APA citations
Example sentence with citation
:
Community correctional programs have expanded to include victim-oriented programs such as community service and restitution (McCarthy and McCarthy, 1982, p. 47).

1B: Note: The only variation on this form occurs whenever the author's name is being used in the sentence itself. In that case place the bracket immediately after the author's name and place inside it only the year and page number(s).

Example sentence when author's name is used in sentence itself:
McCarthy and McCarthy (1982, p. 56) have criticized the use of diversion because it has not resulted in the decline of prison populations.

2: If you have more than one source by the same author published in the same year, designate them by placing a, b, c, etc. after the year in the citation (and also after the year in your listing of the article or book on the reference page).

Examples: (Cohen, 1984a, p. 56) (Cohen, 1984b, p.47)

3: Articles with no author listed can be cited using the name of the publication (e.g. St. Petersburg Times or TIME) or organization (e.g. National Institute of Mental Health) that published the material.

Examples: (TIME, 1990b, p. 35) (NIMH, 1987, p 78)

4: Legal cases are cited using the name of the case and the year the case was decided.
Example: The U.S. Supreme Court recently ruled in favor of California's 3 strike law (Ewing v. California, 2003, pp. 997-1002).

5: For interviews, list the person's last name inside the citation brackets (unless you have used their name in the sentence itself). For example, an interview with Gov. Lawton Chiles would be cited: (Chiles, 1991).

6: Articles by an author(s) that are part of a larger collection (book or journal) edited by another author(s) should be cited by using the name(s) of the actual writer(s) of the article used, not the editor(s).

Note: Every citation within the body of the paper must have a matching source on the reference page. In addition, all sources listed on the reference page must be cited at least once within the text or they can not be counted as legitimate sources. The reference page is not a reading list of books and articles used as background reading for the paper

Note: Never list a URL within an internal citation. Use author of the Web reference, and if author is not available the Web site's publisher/webmaster. Thus, for the Frederickson on-line article listed in the bibliography below, the internal citation is (Frederickson, 2000) , not the URL.

  

How to write bibliographic citations for the reference page:

1. Books:

Author(s). (Year). Title of book. ** City of Publication: Publisher.

**underlined or in italics**

Note: Only the first word of the title (and subtitle) or articles, book chapters, and books should be capitalized. Also, proper nouns. e.g. United States.

Example:

McCarthy, B., & B. McCarthy. (1982). Community-based corrections in the United States. Los Angeles: Brooks/Cole Publishing.

2. Chapter from an edited book:

Author of chapter. (Year). Title of chapter. In Editor(s) of book (ed.) Title of book (pp. ??-??). City of Publication: Publisher.

Example:

Davis, J. M. (1981). Organic therapies. In H.I. Kaplan,  A.M. Freedman, & B. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive handbook of criminal justice (pp. 90-111). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

3. Journal Articles:

Author(s). (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal. vol (no.), page numbers.

Example:

Anderson, K. (1990). Discretion in police work. American Policing. 34(2), 1-10.

Note that journal titles keeps first letter of each important word as a capital. Article title is not italicized, while the journal title is.

4. Newspaper Articles:

Author(s). (Year, Date). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. p. ??.

Example:

Marbin, C. (1990, October 7). Joe Redner's club closed: Out of work dancers become hot dog venders. St. Petersburg Times. p. A3.

5. Legal Cases:

Ewing v. California. (2003). 123 S. Ct. 1179.
Note: Citation itself includes Volume,  Reporter name and page number case starts on.

6. Interviews:

Interviewee. Their Title. (Year). Interviewed by ??. Date. Place.

Example:

Chiles, L. Governor of Florida. (1991). Interviewed by Cecil Greek July 4. Tallahassee.

7. Media Sources: (TV programs, movies, radio broadcasts, etc.)

Basic Format:

Name (Producer), and Name (Director). (Year). Title of film, television program, etc [Type of media]. City: Name of Company that made the program.

Examples:

(1) Movie:

Schwartz, H. (Producer), & Adams, J. (Director). (2003). Friday the thirteenth, part 34: Freddy Kreuger meets Jason [Motion picture]. Hollywood: Columbia Pictures.

Hint: Best place to get this information is the Internet Movie Database at http://www.imdb.com

(2) TV Series

Jones, B. (producer), 2001. NYPD Blue. [Television series]. NY: NBC

(3) Episode of a TV Series

Hall, B. (Writer), & Bender, J. (Director). (2002) I'll fly away home {Television series episode]. In
Jones, B. (Producer), 2001. NYPD Blue. NY: NBC

Note: Each episode of a TV series cited in a paper must be listed separately.

HInt: good place to get this information are on-line TV episode guides such as http://epguides.com/

(4) TV news broadcast.

Jones, B. (Producer), and Flash, S. (Director). (1991). Eyewitness news. August 10. Tampa: TV 10.

8. Electronic Sources (including WWW).

http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html

General Form for Electronic References

Note: Some elements of the 5th edition's style guidelines for electronic resources differ from previously published guidelines.

Electronic sources include aggregated databases, online journals, Web sites or Web pages, newsgroups, Web- or e-mail-based discussion groups, and Web- or e-mail-based newsletters.

Online periodical:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical, xx, xxxxxx. Retrieved month day, year, from source. Include URL.

Online document:

Author, A. A. (2000). Title of work. Retrieved month day, year, from source. Include URL

Example:

Bickel, B. (2000). American skin (41 shots): Bruce and Amadou. Retrieved May 22, 2003, from http://crime.about.com/library/weekly/aa061400a.htm

Note: For other Internet resources, see the APA Electronic References page.

Note: Web URLs can never be used as internal citations in APA format.

To answer any other questions concerning citations, bibliography, spelling, punctuation, abbreviations, hyphenation, etc., please see:

American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American psychological society. (5th ed.). Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association.

 

Sample Reference Page **

A. Books and Articles

Blomberg, T. (1977). Diversion and accelerated social control. Journal of Criminal Law. 21(4), 37-50.

Cohen, S. (1984a). The future of social control. NY: Oxford University Press.

Cohen, S. (1984b). Folk devils and moral panics: A history of the "mods" and "rockers." London: Palidin Press.

Davis, J. M. (1981). Organic therapies. In H.I. Kaplan, A.M. Freedman, and B. Sadock (Eds.). Comprehensive handbook of criminal justice. (pp. 90-111). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Ewing v. California. (2003). 123 S. Ct. 1179.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and well-being. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from http://journals.apa.org/prevention/volume3/pre0030001a.html

Marbin, C. (1990, October 7). Joe Redner's club closed: Out of work dancers become hot dog venders. St. Petersburg Times. p. A3.

McCarthy, B. & B. McCarthy. (1982). Community-based corrections. Los Angeles: Brooks/Cole Publishing.

St. Petersburg Times. (1990a, March 7). New problems with house arrest. p.C4.

St. Petersburg Times. (1990b, April 7). Diversion is not working. p. A1.

 

B. Interviews

Chiles, L. Governor of Florida. (1991). Interviewed by Cecil Greek. July 4. Tallahassee.

 

C. Media Sources

Black, D. (producer). (2001). 100 centre street [Television series]. NY: A&E TV Network.

Jones, B. (Producer), and S. Flash (Director). (1991). Eyewitness news. August 10. Tampa: TV 10.

Schwartz, H. (Producer), and Adams, J. (Director). (2003). Friday the thirteenth, part 34: Freddy Kreuger meets Jason. Hollywood: Columbia Pictures.

** Note: Bibliography must be alphabetized.
 

Second line of each citation should be indented 5 spaces. In Word you can use the "hanging indent" feature to quickly set up the entire references page in  this way.

 



Any other questions concerning style or format should be referred to Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (5th. edition, 2001).) For other Internet resources such as email, chat sessions, inc., see the APA Electronic References page.

Hint: There is software available (EndNote) to automatically construct reference pages in APA (or any other of the commonly used formats.


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